Гипотермия и причины переохлаждения

Гипотермия: исключите причины переохлаждения Health
Когда речь заходит о беге, то гипотермия редко рассматривается всерьез, как реальная опасность, а зря.

When it comes to running, hypothermia is rarely taken seriously as a real danger, and for good reason. There is no need to run ultras in the Arctic to grab body hypothermia. A classic St. Petersburg fall is enough.

Hypothermia is simply a loss of heat that exceeds its production. A loss of only 2 degrees of our normal body temperature of 36.6 (axillary) is sufficient to state it.

Human body temperature fluctuations are subject to daily rhythms and the lower threshold is 35.5 degrees (in the morning) – the norm for a healthy body, it is maintained due to the biological homeostasis.

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However, rather quickly, when the values fall to 30.0 – 32.0 degrees, these mechanisms become insufficient. This is the stage of moderate hypothermia. Shivering, becoming a useless and difficult process due to decreased nervous activity, subsides to conserve energy reserves, more necessary for the vital activity of internal organs.

Severe hypothermia, according to the popular classification, occurs at a body temperature of 27.0 degrees and borders on serious disorders. Such hypothermia causes dysfunction of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, nerve conduction, and many other disorders and malfunctions.

But this is half the trouble, because in severe hypothermia the thermoregulation center stops working altogether and shuts down. Accordingly, independent (passive) warming becomes impossible. If there is no active warming of the body, this almost always leads to death.

Absolutely all stages of hypothermia affect mental abilities to some degree, and as the central body temperature drops, there is disorientation, a progressive decrease in the level of consciousness, up to a complete loss of control, logic and self-awareness.

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Although there are different classifications of hypothermia levels with detailed descriptions of the processes and changes, all of them allow for exceptions. When seemingly serious and prolonged hypothermia, in fact, did not lead to any negative consequences for the body. And from severe stages of hypothermia the observed person returned to a normal state on his own.

However, the opposite is also true, when a slight hypothermia resulted in irreversible consequences. All this once again shows the uniqueness of each organism.

Защита от гипотермии

Be that as it may, unless you are a yogi from the Himalayas, protecting yourself from hypothermia is necessary and desirable to do it properly. For runners, cyclists and, of course, other cyclic athletes, the reason for protection against hypothermia that can be put first is the frequent disturbance of the heart rhythm even with moderate drops in body temperature.

Экипировка

Undoubtedly, the best protection is clothing. Consider the runner’s outfit as a whole, not as individual items. This complex in the cold should include a sweating layer directly near the body, transferring moisture to the outer layer, which is able to deliver it to the outside for subsequent evaporation in the air.

More often than not, membrane jackets, breathable but waterproof, are considered the outer layer of clothing. This is a great, though not cheap, option for some trail running and light recovery races. However, when it comes to serious physical activity, no modern membranes can handle it. And the difference between an expensive Gortex and a simple windbreaker becomes barely noticeable.

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В связи с этим, беговые куртки для отвода влаги от тела имеют в конструкции не мембранные ткани, а вентиляционные сеточные элементы разной площади и расположения (чаще всего – на спине).

As a layer adjacent to the body, thermal underwear designed for warmth and maximum moisture wicking is used, or regular jogging shirts with the same purpose. If cotton is used, such a T-shirt will not be a conductor of moisture, but on the contrary, an accumulator, which will seriously increase the probability of hypothermia.

Equipment for running in winter we have already taken apart, but we can mention that it is enough to add another layer of fleece. Better, of course, is Polartec – it does not lose its properties, but a lot of fakes are sold.

Don’t just think of winter frosts, because the greatest amount of hypothermia seems to happen to runners and cyclists in the fall (or spring). At that time there is a high probability of getting caught in a good rain and cold wind away from shelter. And winter hydrophobic outfits that contain fleece or wool and have the ability to keep you warm in the wet are still resting at home in the closet.

Питание и гидратация

Холодная погода предъявляет к атлетам более высокие энергетические требования. Это, с одной стороны, стимулирует тело сжигать жир, а с другой – требует еще большего количества углеводов. Побочный эффект метаболизма, проявляющийся в виде тепла будет весьма кстати.

Since water is the most important and almost the main element of heat exchange, the importance of having enough of it in the body is out of the question. But we must not forget that everything must be in moderation.

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Для горняков и скайраннеров важно помнить, что с увеличением высоты вероятность обезвоживания увеличивается так же быстро, как и вероятность получить гипотермию.

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